How would it be if you knew something bad was going to happen and you had the power to control it or stop it from happening. One such application can be done using Computer Science in real life example to control sewage flow in the drains. A sensor is embedded at certain level below the flow point or safety level of the sewage drain. This idea can be used to overcome blockage and overflow of drains. This can be implemented by using a special purpose microcontroller with peripherals which detect the overflow. Each microcontroller is installed at every drain point which has a specific id, so that the signal can be send to the Corporation and cleaning process for the specific drain can be started to clear the blockage. This will ensure that the roads and city are  maintained in good condition. Hygienic environment is also ensured. This cleaning process can be carried out a day before the over flow. In this way the roads also are not blocked for cleaning process. Thus by the use of a small microcontrollers we can control the flow of drains all over the city.

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment



A natural hazard is a warning that a naturally occurring incident will have an off-putting effect on humans. This negative effect is what is called as natural disaster. When the hazardous events take place very vigorously and harms humans, then those events are called natural disasters. Disasters can be of various types such as storms, earthquakes, tsunami, drought, floods, etc.There are two types of disasters namely  natural and man made. Natural disasters occur without human involvement such as earthquakes. Man made disasters are caused solely by man and his activities and include global warming, acid rain,etc.Storms are basically caused due to disturbance in the atmosphere by strong and violent winds or by hail.  Storms can be classified into the following classification:







    Different types of storms are wind storms, coastal storms, tornadoes, hurricane,  etc. Wind storms are often connected with other storms, such as hurricanes but may occur independently. High winds can cause downed treesand power lines, flying fragments and trash, and building collapses, all of which may lead to power outages, transportation disruptions, damage to buildings and vehicles, and injury or death. Flying debris is the primary cause of damage during a wind storm. While a building may be generally structurally sound, broken glass from windowscause injuries inside and outside the building and extensive damage to building content.

        Coastal storms, tropical storms and hurricanes have an adverse effect on the people when they cross their threshold values. If a city is heavily populated and has highly developed coastline then it makes the city among the most susceptible to storm and other wind related damage.

A tornado is a violent storm with winds up to 300 miles per hour. It appears as a rotating funnel-shaped cloud, grey to black in color, extending toward the ground from the base of a thundercloud. The average tornado moves south west to north east at a forward speed of 30 miles per hour, but tornadoes can move in any direction and may vary from stationary to 70 miles per hour. Tornadoes are most frequent east of the Rocky Mountains during spring and summer months between the hours of 3 PM and 9 PM. Tornadoes may also accompany hurricanes. Tornadoes can deracinate trees and buildings and turn harmless objects into lethal armaments in a matter of seconds. Tornadoes are especially dangerous because they appear transparent until they begin to pick up debris and dust. These storms are the most aggressive of all atmospheric phenomena and are the most vicious. Nearly 800 tornadoes occur across the nation every year, resulting in almost 80 deaths and 1,500 injuries. Damage paths can exceed one mile wide and 50 miles long.

A hurricane is a type of tropical cyclone, which is a generic term for a low-pressure system that generally forms in the tropics. Thunderstorms in the Northern regions take a counter clockwise circulation of winds near the earth’s surface accompanying the cyclone. Tropical cyclones are classified as follows:

ü    A tropical gloominess is an organized system of clouds and thunderstorms, with a defined surface circulation, and maximum sustained winds of 38 miles per hour or less.

ü    A tropical storm is a structured system of strong thunderstorms, with a defined surface circulation, and maximum sustained winds of 39 to 73 miles per hour.

ü    A hurricane is an intense tropical weather system of strong thunderstorms, with a well-defined surface circulation, and maximum sustained winds of 74 miles per hour or higher.

ü   Heavy rain, coastal flooding, and powerful winds are commonly associated with hurricanes. Storm surge is often the greatest hurricane-related hazard.1 Storm surge is water that is pushed toward the shore by the force of the winds swirling around the storm. This advancing surge combines with the normal tides to create the hurricane storm tide, which can increase the mean water level 15 feet or more. In addition, wind driven waves are superimposed on the storm tide. This rise in water level can cause severe inundation in coastal areas, particularly when the storm tide coincides with the normal high tides.


In India, the susceptibility of the buildings and houses are not studied in detail. Vulnerability Atlas do classify the buildings based on those strengths as high or very high etc but a little more elaborative research work is necessary in assessing the vulnerability for reducing risks. There is an inevitable need to generate the scenarios in all regions by probabilistic methods like assuming a strong storm arrives in the region. Then we have to prepare a model of the side effects to reduce heavy losses in future.


The Ministry of Home Affairs,Government of India,is the ministry which is responsible for disaster mitigation in India.Additionally,State level mitigation plans also have been putforth to contribute something to relief operations during emergency times.Meteorological Department monitors the cyclone prone areas.They prepare maps which show the hazardous zones of different intensities.This helps in clearly identifying some of the major cyclone prone areas.Instrumentation  in many location help for recording wind intensities. History is of great importance in predicting the cyclones. There are high probabilities for storms occurring in the same area where it occurred some years ago. Warning systems have been installed by the Meteorological Department in our country. It has received a good response since it predicts more or less correctly.

The mere installation of warning systems alone wont help in mitigating the storms. Hence our Government has taken some serious measures by establishing a system of fast communication between Meteorological Department which forecast the arrival of cyclones and the respective authorities in State and the districts so that people get the information very quickly.National Computer Network is being established. E-mail systems are also currently being established by our Government.

Moreover, Government is also involved in development of scenarios in which they will generate the damage scenarios in case a major cyclone occurs. These scenarios are of great importance in preparing necessary plans for the affected people.


Disaster mitigation is the ongoing effort to lessen the impact disasters have on people and property. Fewer people and communities would be affected by natural disasters with the use of this process. Because of the varying degree of each natural disaster, there are different mitigation strategies for each. Outlined in the following tables are some important recommendations for protection against disaster.Disaster management is the process of talking in hand an event that has the prospective to seriously dislocate the social fabric of the community. Disaster management is similar to disaster mitigation, however it implies a whole-of-government approach to using community resources to fight the effects of an event and assumes the community will be self-sufficient for periods of time until the situation can be stabilized. Through disaster management, we cannot completely counteract the damage but it is possible to minimize the risks through early warning, provide developmental plans for recuperation from the disaster, generate communication and medical resources, and aid in rehabilitation and post-disaster reconstruction.

Disaster attentiveness includes all of the activities that are carried out preceding the advance notice of a calamity in order to facilitate the use of available resources, relief, and treatment in the best possible fashion. Disaster preparedness starts at the local community level. If local resources were insufficient, it would branch out to the national level, and if needed, the international level. Every country must take steps before the disaster such as storms occur. Every individual can actually contribute to it by doing his/her role.

Before The Storm—Mitigation For Your Home

Know your home‟s construction and take this into consideration when making preparations.You should keep your house ready by protecting every opening with accordion shutters, panels or impact-resistant windows that meet the current code. Inspect windows to make sure they are in working condition. Practice putting up panels or opening/closing and locking accordion shutters if you have them. Inspect doors to make sure they are in good condition.Add extra locks or slide bolts to inward-swinging doors.French doors and double doors are especially vulnerable.Inspect your roof.Engage an expert to repair trusses or beams that have cracks, large knots or insect damage and inspect boards along roof edges and gales for signs of decay caused by leaks.Repair all possible cracked or missing roof tiles.Protect your garage door with hurricane panels or reinforce from the inside with wood studs or metal braces.Trim the trees and shrubs.Chop limbs or trees that could fall against the house.Know where your shut-off valves are for water, propane and electricity.  Area sewer systems may back up in which case you should turn off water to avoid back up into your  home. Boca West is not in a flood zone, however, purchase of flood insurance is inexpensive and recommended, regardless of zone.

Before The Storm—Personal Plans and Supplies 

Plan ahead by knowing where you will go, how you will get there. Tell your friends, neighbours where you are going.Planning to Stay Put Gather & store supplies, including but not limited to:  Packaged/canned non-perishable food;  barbeque grill with sufficient propane to cook food; a manual can opener; battery operated fans; battery operated radio/television; Cash—ATMs may not work in a power outage; a full tank of gasoline; batteries; candles or portable lights/flashlights; bottled water; first aid kit; ice chest with ice;matches; medicines; toiletries;  storage & trash bags;  paper plates/plastic utensils; bug-off spray; fire extinguisher; tools. Residents with special medical needs, such as those using portable in-home kidney dialysis machine, should make arrangements far in advance of a hurricane. If you don‟t have a generator, know where to go to receive your treatments.Learn how to open your garage door when power to your home fails.Pick up an “Alert” door hang tag at the Security Office — particularly if you are in a mid-rise building. These tags help Security Officers identify which residents need “Help” or if all is “O.K.” in a particular residence.

As the Storm Approaches -Best Practices for Inside the Home

Check medical supplies. If you don’t have enough, go to the pharmacy now.Top off your food supplies. You should need only perishable goods at this point to complement your staples and canned goods. If you don’t have those things, get them right away.Check the first-aid kit. Replenish missing items. Check your tools. Put them all in one place. Scrub plastic water containers with household soap, swab with bleach, rinse thoroughly, let dry. Then fill containers with water.Turn refrigerator and freezer to the coldest settings. Start freezing plastic gallon-size freezer bags and 2-litre soda bottles filled with water. Do not open the refrigerator unless you absolutely must. A portable ice chest can be used as a substitute to keep food and beverages cool.Put valuables and documents, including a list of possessions, in a waterproof container. Place your videotape or photographs of valuables in there, too.Bring pets indoors. Make sure they have a two-week supply of food and are wearing identification.To sterilize the bathtub, scrub with household soap, swab with bleach, rinse thoroughly, and let dry. Seal the drain with a silicone caulking that you can easily remove later. Fill the tub with water.Stock your safe place with a first-aid kit, small supply of food and water, flash light, games for the kids, blankets and a mattress.Review with family members escape routes out of the house.Make sure everyone knows where the fire extinguisher is.Depending on where the storm is, shut off electricity, water and gas.Stay indoors unless you absolutely must go out.


As the Storm Approaches – Best Practices for Outside the Home

Close shutters, lash down awnings or, if you don’t have any other protection, mount plywood across your windows and sliding glass doors, including the garage door.

Identify the point in time to shut off the water, gas and electricity. Shut them if you have to evacuate.Bring things that could blow around: toys, bicycles, garbage cans, patio furniture.If you have a TV antenna or satellite dish, now is the time to take it down. Unplug socket wires and be careful not to touch power lines with the antenna.Do not drain the swimming pool. Do not sink lawn furniture into the pool since you could ruin the pool’s surfacing.Switch off power to the swimming pool pump, pool lights and chlorinator. Incase your pool pump is exposed, wrap with a waterproof cover and tie it securely. If you’re handy, remove the pump and store it inside.Forget about trimming the trees as no one will come to pick up the debris at this point and the storm could turn your trimmings into airborne missiles.During the Storm,go to a room in your house without windows and remain until the storm has entirely passed.After the Storm,If power is lost, turn off electrical appliances so that when it is restored the demand is not excessive.Try your cell phone, hard-wired phone or other communication device to determine if there is service.Call your relatives to let them know you are ok. Be patient.  Anticipate that there will be interruptions of service. Stay away from all downed power or cable lines.Report these to Govt office immediately.Do not walk through deep standing water — you do no know if there are submerged power lines.Refrain from venturing outside for at least 24 hours after the passage of a storm to allow emergency vehicles to respond to calls for service on uncongested roads.Listen to broadcasts of information on your battery operated radio or television. Refrain from using excessive water or flushing toilets often.  Fill your bathtub prior to the storm and use this water and a bucket to flush.


Cyclonic storms have caused destruction to lives of many people in our country from time to time. The time has arrived when we need to look upon mitigating this disaster seriously. It is not only necessary to execute the storm mitigation plan but also we need to find a combined approach to stop other disasters too.



Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment


I wanted to organise the different components of Environment so that it forms a fine structure altogether.Environment can be classified as

1.Physical Environment

2.Biological Environment

3.Cultural Environment

Now lets see about Physical Environment.Physical Environment is further classified into

  • atmosphere
  • hydrosphere
  • lithosphere.

We all learnt in our childhood that atmosphere is the blanket of air surrounding the earth.

Atmosphere is further divided into several layers as

  • Troposphere
  • Stratosphere
  • Mesosphere
  • Thermosphere

The division of atmosphere is shown in the figure below


Hydrosphere is the liquid component of earth.

Lithosphere is the solid shell of Earth.It contributes to the rock part.

Now lets move on to biological environment.Biological environment is subclassified into

  • flora
  • fauna  


Flora is the plant life occurring in a particular region.Fauna refers to animals or wildlife.

Cultural Environment is subclassified as

  • society,
  • economy and
  • politics.

I think these components give a clear picture of structure of environment.



Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment


     Global warming is a major concern and people need to be enlightened about this issue.In the movie An Inconvenient Truth,Former American Vice President Al Gore serves this purpose by preaching his concerns on global warming.In this movie Al Gore explains some facts about global warming with the help of  PowerPoint presentation.He also talks about the side effects which will occur in future if this issue is left unnoticed. Gore insists that global warming is not a political issue at all–it is “a moral issue.”



     I can see  Al Gore’s passion towards the environmental welfare. After watching the film,I kept wondering how much I have contributed to my environment so far??I liked the way he presented every fact with bar graphs and charts.I drive vehicle and I use refridgerator. I feel embarrassed because I am also one of the causes for global warming.Gore’s documentary is seriously an eye opener to all of us.

     Thus An Inconvenient Truth indirectly says that it is high time that we have to do something to reduce the green house gases.And to the maximum,what we can do is try planting trees in your nearby areas.Its well enough 🙂

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment


Right from my childhood,I always wanted to do something useful for the environment.Whenever I find any environmental cleanup or social awareness activity,I would be the first person to join in that activity.May be this is the reason why I opted for NSS as personality development program in my college.In my sixth semester,I got a chance to be a part of Chennai Trekking Club in coastal cleanup activity.In the early morning,we went to Neelangarai beach to clean up the degradable and non-degradable wastes. I havent been there before.The beach was so calm and beautiful to watch.The only worrying factor about the beach was the wastes thrown here and there.I and my friends decided to clean those wastes.We split among ourselves so that one group would pick degradable wastes and the other group would pick non-degradable wastes.We all really enjoyed our work and it was a fun filled day which we can’t forget 🙂


Another day,we went to Pallikaranai to see what has happened to marsh lands.It was one of the rare places in Chennai which has marsh lands.It is seriously disappointing to see huge loads of garbages being dumped there.We took some pictures and then we were on our way to Vandalur zoo.That was my first visit to Vandalur zoo. I was really excited to see different  kinds of animals like white tiger,macaque,hyna,lion,python,king cobra etc.I didnt expect there would be giraffe and zebra too.After  seeing some of the rare species like white tiger,I felt that it is our prime duty to take some serious steps to protect animals from becoming extinct. Overall,it was a memorable as well as a good learning experience for me.



Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment


      Onions are cultivated across different parts of world.Mexico,Korea,China and Japan are the leading producers of onion.Onions are one of the widely used vegetables.Now think of chopping onions without a single drop of tears in your eyes..!! New Zealand scientists say that it is possible.This is the theme behind producing Genetically Modified Onion.I really feel that the genetically modified onion will have a great reception amongst the consumers.


   The tears produced by an onion is nothing but a self defense mechanism. When an onion is cut or chooped or broken,it produces amino acid sulphoxide and a particular enzyme. The enzyme converts the sulphoxides into vapour,which then rises up into the eyes and causes the tears.

   Dr.Colin Eady at the New Zealand Crop & Food Research lab are working on producing GM onion.They end the tears bu turning off the enzyme

   The enzyme is not neutralized by adding a gene to the onion. Instead, a gene is shut down using the process of RNA interference. The process means that amino acid sulphoxides are not converted into the tearing agents.

   Dr. Eady said: “If the research progresses well, would like to see them become the household and industry norm within the next decade”

   Thus genetic modification is really helpful for the consumers as we can remove the undesirable characteristics of particular crops using this technology.

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment



       Shampoos are cleaning solutions which are used for personal care, pet use, and carpets. Shampoo is mainly composed of chemicals called surfactants.Surfactants generally function by surrounding oily materials on surfaces and allow them to be rinsed away  by water.The main use of shampoo is for washing our hair.

AD :

    Kareena Kapoor says that she uses head n shoulders for the past one and a half years and never complained of dandruff.The ad also says that we can remove the dandruff within one wash.




    People get lured by this ad and started using the shampoos.They have shifted their choice from using herbal shampoos to these kind of shampoos.



      Generally  surfactants form foam which then mixes with waste water.Thus it is a harmful effluent which is insoluble in water.So it is difficult to remove the foam completely from the water using waste water treatment.To check the level of irritation caused in our eyes,they test it on animals before it comes into the market for use.Thus shampoos cause unnecessary disturbances to the ecosystem.

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment


I personally feel animal testing is so wrong because they also have equal rights on earth as we have.Animal testing can prove to be of  minor pain as well as fatal.It is not fair on our part to snatch their freedom to live.Animal testing kills millions of animals every year.The main animals which are used for testing are rats,pigs,cows,cats,dogs and other farm animals.Now-a-days many companies have stopped animal tests forever.

There are some cases when animals are unfairly or cruelly treated, Huntington Life Science is a good example of this, the animal testing was not only unethical but it was found those in the labs were badly treating the animals, such as beating the animals. If animal testing continues, the animals could get instinct. Products such as shampoo, makeup, wigs are not so necessary.But they are tested on poor innocent animals.This situation must be avoided.I also feel that if the scientists already knew that a particular ingredient may cause harm then why are they unnecessarily adding it and testing upon the poor animals?


testing on rat..!!!











I am not completely against animal testing.I am ok if it is carried out really for medical reasons otherwise I feel it is unnecessary because medical drugs cannot be directly tested on humans.It may prove to be harmful.So animal testing is inevitable in this case,there is no other way.


Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment




        Rock Hard Petro Chemical Industries Ltd. was started as a Private Limited Company in Madhya Pradesh on 21st September,1974.It was  then converted into a Public Limited Company on 19th July 1990 and a fresh Certificate of Incorporation from the Government was obtained.Formaldehyde is the main chemical manufactured in this industry.



        The petrochemical industries are  main contributors to the world economy.They are inevitable in these times.The industries produce a wide range of products including including ethylene, vinyl chloride, styrene monomer, propylene, benzene, toluene, and xylene.These products are the raw materials for manufacture of many plastics.Serious care is necessary for producing the above mentioned chemicals.Because of these conditions,when something goes wrong in a petrochemical processing facility,it can have serious consequences.

        If a severe accident occurs,then it may eventually lead to fire,explosion or toxic releases.Global warming is caused due to the chemicals released. Ground level production of photo oxidants such as ozone and  peroxiacetylnitrate has caused the build–up of photochemical smog, which causes damage to the environment such as plant growth reduction and damage to leaf tissue. Theses photo oxidants are formed from the reaction of reactive hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen in the presence of sunlight.Stratic ozone depletion is also another major concern.


       As an initative to reduce pollution,different parts of equipment in the Rockhard industry are interconnected in ways that complicate their operation.Also the company follows the “Pollutor-pays-Principle act”,


Petro chemical industry


Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment


The core is a perfect example for man vs nature movie. The story revolves around the human efforts to restart the Earth’s core. Basically man was responsible for the sudden cease in the rotation of earth’s core. There were violent thunders,nearly 30 people dying within seconds of each other when their pacemakers quit working.If this is left unnoticed,then it will lead to the collapse of the Earth’s electromagnetic field.Then our planet will be susceptible to harmful radiations. So a group of three people came up with a secret plan.The plan is to go down to the centre of the earth and agitate the rotation of earth’s molten core by implanting some nuclear charges. If this is not executed,then the mankind will surely be in danger.So  Dr. Josh Keyes and his crew of five are on a mission to drill down to the center of the Earth to set off a nuclear device to make the Earth’s core start spinning.They progress down to the center of the earth using multicompartment ship canlled Virgil.



graphics and


The above apects were really good which made me to keep guessing what would happen next.


There were some factual drawbacks.For eg.,we all know that as we progress towards the centre of the earth the gravity decreases at a linear rate and it becomes ZERO.Since the ship is nearly above the molten core,the gravity should be more or less zero.So the crew should actually float.Instead,they walk as if they are under the influence of normail gravity.

This film gives a strong message to protect our earth’s magnetic field.If our magnetic field is completely destroyed,then our planet is exposed to deadly cosmic rays.

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment